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Manuscripts from Different Brands of Ballpoint Pens – GC/MS Ageing Profile in Brazilian Tropical Weather

[ Vol. 6 , Issue. 1 ]

Author(s):

Carina M. B. de Carvalho*, Scorsatto R. Ortiz and Renata P. Limberger   Pages 15 - 29 ( 15 )

Abstract:


Background: Dating of ballpoint pen manuscripts in forensic documents is still a challenge for experts. Methods of ink dating have regarding solvent evaporation through time, especially 2-phenoxyethanol (2-PE).

Objective: The objective of this study was to perform a continued study with pen ink strokes of ballpoint pens commercialized in Brazil, to characterize the ageing profile of 15 brands of blue and black pens.

Method: Solvent composition analysis of ballpoint pen ink lines wrote in white and recycled paper were performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, to quantify 2-PE, in recently wrote and in lines aged 4, 18, 27 and 36 months.

Results: The results showed that the pens had initial quantities of 2-PE smaller than in Europe but ageing behavior was similar. Kind of paper influences in pens aged but influences less in the pens recently applied. Light and heat accelerated the ageing. Some pens stopped ageing at 18, 27 and 36 months.

Conclusion: The results obtained were promising for elucidation of the ageing behavior of pen ink lines in tropical weather, but further statistical treatments could be done in view of adequate interpretation in real cases.

Keywords:

Forensic chemistry, 2-phenoxyethanol, pen ink aging, document forgery, gas chromatography, mass spectro-metry.

Affiliation:

Rio Grande do Sul Technical and Scientifical Division, Brazilian Federal Police, Porto Alegre, RS, Rio Grande do Sul Technical and Scientifical Division, Brazilian Federal Police, Porto Alegre, RS, Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS



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